Keeping Your Heart And Brain Healthy

Do you know that there is a connection between homocysteine ​​and your heart and brain health?

Homocysteine ​​is a type of amino acid (building block of protein) that is produced by the human body during protein metabolism. It is not obtained from the diet. The body makes homocysteine ​​from the amino acid methionine in the diet via a multi-stage process. After that, the body uses folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to recycle homocysteine ​​back into methionine or convert it into another amino acid cysteine.

At normal levels, homocysteine ​​is either dangerous nor unhealthy. But when homocysteine ​​is not properly metabolized, it builds up inside the body and acts like a toxin. Elevated homocysteine ​​levels cause infection to rise, damage the lining of the arteries, and increase the risk of blood clot formation, resulting in blockages.

A clot inside the blood vessel is called a thrombus. A thrombus can travel in the bloodstream and get stuck in the lungs (a pulmonary embolism), in the brain (a stroke), or in the heart (a heart attack). People who have abnormally high levels of homocysteine ​​are at an increased risk for coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

Many studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine ​​is detrimental to the brain too. Elevated homocysteine ​​damages DNA and induces cell death, which leads to brain atrophy or shrinkage in dementia. It increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other mental abnormalities such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.

What Causes High Homocysteine

Most adults do not know that they have elevated homocysteine ​​as there may not be any symptoms. A simple blood test can determine your status. However, doctors do not routinely order the test without patients have a family history of heart disease. Here, you may want to ask your doctor about it.

  • Optimal level is below 8 umo / L.
  • A reading above 10 umo / L is considered high and is associated with increased heart attack risk.
  • Above 15 umo / L, it is a medical condition called hyperhomocysteinemia. At these levels, the prevalence of dementia, along with cognitive and functional impairment is almost double.

High homocysteine ​​may be caused by a number of factors –

Vitamin deficiencies

To maintain normal levels of homocysteine, the body requires folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 obtained from the diet. Deficiencies in these vitamins may lead to increased levels.

Genetics

People born with the MTHFR (methyletetrahydrofolate reductase) gene mutation produce less than the enzymes that are normally used for metabolizing homocysteine. This metabolic disorder is like an enzyme defect and is passed from parents to children. It is estimated that up to 30-50 percent of the population may carry a mutation in this MTHFR gene. The severity and type of symptoms vary from person to person depending on how much fewer enzymes a person produces as a result of the MTHFR mutation. The reduction may range from 10-30 percent to as much as 70-90 percent.

Individuals with the MTHFR mutation are likely to have higher homocysteine ​​levels, increased infection and risk of heart disease, diabetes, birth defects, difficult pregnancies, anxiety and depression, fatigue, and an impaired ability to detoxify.

How to find out if you have the MTHFR mutation? These days, genetic testing can be easily done with a saliva test kit ordered from www.23andme.com . It is inexpensive and non-invasive. You collect the saliva sample at home and mail it back to the lab.

Stress

Stress-induced neurotransmitters – epinephrine and norepinephrine – are metabolized in the liver via a process that also uses folate. As a result, chronic high stress may result in a depletion of this critical B vitamin that is key to maintaining normal levels of homocysteine.

Too much animal protein

High consumption of animal protein, especially unhealthy processed red meats like cold cuts, bacon, and canned meats from factory-farmed animals, may lead to high homocysteine ​​levels.

Excess caffeine

Drinking too much coffee and energy drinks may deplete the body of vital B vitamins, which are essential for normal homocysteine ​​metabolism.

How To Keep Homocysteine ​​Levels In Check

Improve Your Diet

High homocysteine ​​not only increases inflammation, but also makes it harder for the body to detoxify the accumulated chemicals, heavy metals, and toxins. Therefore, by eating healthy foods, you can lessen the burden of a bad diet imposes on your body.

  • Reduce intake of inflammatory foods such as sugar, deep-fried foods, processed meats, meats from factory-farmed animals, conventional dairy, vegetable oils, trans fats, and preservatives. Eat mostly organic, unprocessed foods.
  • Get plenty of antioxidants to combat the infection by having more vegetables of different colors or drinking vegetable juice daily.
  • Cut back on caffeine and alcohol. Too much caffeine increases homocysteine ​​levels and alcohol is inflammatory.
  • Focus on healthy fats such as coconut oil and milk, olive oil, grass-fed butter and meats, wild-cage Alaskan salmon, sardines, avocado, nuts and seeds.
  • Increase consumption of fermented foods as the supply of good bacteria can help reduce inflammation in the body. Examples include fermented vegetables like sauerkraut, kimchi, and pickles, unsweetened yogurt and kefir, kombucha, and tempeh.

Get Enough Folate

Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is naturally found in foods such as beans, legumes, liver, spinach, asparagus, avocado, broccoli, and beets.

Folate primarily helps the body make new cells, specifically by playing a role in copying and synthesizing DNA. It also helps the body utilize vitamin B12 and amino acids. If you do not have the habit of eating vegetables everyday, you may run the risk of a folate deficiency. Symptoms include –

  • elevated homocysteine ​​levels
  • anemia
  • poor immune function
  • poor digestion
  • ulcers on the tongue
  • changes in hair or skin pigmentation
  • birth defects

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate found in lower quality supplements and "fortified foods" such as orange juice and refined grains.

For those individuals with the MTHFR mutation, your bodies will not be able to convert folic acid into folate. If you have been taking folic acid supplements and your homocysteine ​​levels are still high, this may be the reason. Therefore, you should either get more folate from the diet or take the active form of folate supplements instead. Look for 5-MTHF (5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate) on the label. Avoid products that say "folic acid".

Have Adequate Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine. Best food sources are turkey breast, chicken breast, grass-fed beef, pinto beans, chickpeas, avocado, pistachio, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, and amaranth grain.

Vitamin B6 is needed to –

  • regulated homocysteine ​​levels within the blood
  • maintain healthy blood vessels
  • manage blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • support brain function and mood
  • help treat anemia
  • protect eye and skin health
  • prevent or reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

For people living in the western world, it is rather rare to have a vitamin B6 deficiency as most people consume enough calories and are not experiencing malnourishment.

Get Enough Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cyanocobalamin, is found mostly in animal foods such as beef and chicken liver, seafood, and meats.

  • For this reason, vegans and plant-based eaters are more likely to develop a vitamin B12 deficiency. Unfortunately, algae foods, such as blue-green algae, which are popular among vegans are not very absorbable source of vitamin B12.
  • Elderly people who have impaired digestion are also more susceptible for deficiency because they tend to produce less stomach acid that is needed to convert vitamin B12 properly.
  • Other high risk groups include smokers, alcoholics, those with anemia, and digestive disorders such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, gastritis, or other stomach and small intestinal disorders.

Vitamin B12 benefits your mood, energy level, memory, heart, skin, hair, digestion, hormonal balance and more. Therefore, a deficiency can show up in many different symptoms, such as chronic fatigue, mood changes, poor memory, joint pain, muscle aches, heart problems like palpitations, or feeling run down.

As a supplement, vitamin B12 can be taken in tablet form, in drops that you place under the tongue, or in oral spray form. Sometimes, seniors do better with drops and oral sprays as they have trouble absorbing the vitamin from the stomach.

All B vitamins are water-soluble, that means the body has the ability to flush out any excess through the urine. Here, B vitamins are considered safe and non-toxic.

Maintain A High Omega-3 Status

Studies have shown that homocysteine-lowering B vitamins require healthy omega-3 blood levels to derive the cognitive benefits. When omega-3 levels are low, the B vitamins have no effect.

Therefore, to protect your brain from premature aging, make sure you have enough B vitamins and omega-3s. Eat several servings of mercury-free fish such as wild Alaskan salmon, sardines, and herrings every week, or take a high quality omega-3 supplement daily.

Exercise Regularly

Regular physical activity helps lower inflammation, manage stress levels, and improve sleep quality, immune function, hormonal balance, and body weight control. Find a type of activity you enjoy and stick with it. People who exercise into their old age tend to have better quality of life.



Source by Carol Chuang

Healthy Eating – The Best And Worst Vegetables To Include In Your Diet Plan

We all know eating a wide assortment of vegetables is a smart move if you hope to…

  • raise the state of your health,
  • promote weight loss, and
  • manage your blood sugar.

But, are some vegetables healthier than others? The fact is, they are. Particular vegetables will give more significant health benefits than others, and this is important to keep in mind.

While consuming some vegetable is better than eating no vegetable, the more healthy vegetables you include in your diet plan each day, the better off you will be.

So which ones should you focus on? Let’s look at the list…

Best…

  • Topping the list of healthy vegetables to include in your diet are kale and spinach. These leafy greens earn top marks for having low-calorie content and a very high nutritional profile. They are loaded with vitamins and minerals and also contain a lot of antioxidants, which will help reduce inflammation and keep you disease free.
  • Next, you have broccoli. This green vegetable is rich in dietary fiber so is excellent for reducing cholesterol and helping you feel full. In turn, this will help lower how many calories you consume.
  • From there, do not overlook cabbage: it is a cancer fighter through and through. Also, cabbage will also help you reduce inflammation and feel and function your very best.
  • Lastly, consider adding Bok Choy to your day. Bok Choy is another vegetable that is passed over but is an excellent choice as it is lower in calories and provides a decent amount of calcium as well.

Worst, and I do say worst lightly. Remember, there is no “bad” vegetable. Just ones that do not have as great of a nutritional payoff…

  • Topping the list here is iceberg lettuce. While iceberg lettuce will help hydrate you, it does not offer much in the way of nutrients to help keep you feeling your best.
  • Second is corn and peas. Again, they are healthy but higher in both starch and calories than other vegetables. You can eat them, but they may lead to weight gain if you eat too many.
  • Another vegetable to be careful about eating in large quantities are potatoes. Potatoes are more of a starchy tuberous crop and contain more glucose than sugar. Choose sweet potatoes or yams for a healthier option.

There you have a few of the best and worst vegetables you can include in a healthy diet plan. Are you making the smartest decisions possible?



Source by Beverleigh H Piepers

Top Tips To Stay Healthy This Year

A simple and very effective way of improving your health is by modifying your diet and not over eating. Studies have shown that people who generally consume fewer calories live longer. The way we eat also has an impact on our health. Eating in a hurry or "on the go" can lead to indigestion and heartburn. The following 5 tips can be used as a good basic start for your health.

1. Regular Exercise: this has so many health benefits both physically and emotionally. People who exercise regularly have a lower risk of developing depression. If you are new to exercise, then start by walking. Even a 20min daily walk will make you feel healthier. Exercising has the added benefits of keeping your heart muscles strong, helping you lose weight, keeping your cholesterol level down and making you feel more energetic. Incorporating some sort of weight bearing exercise, such as weight training, will help you burn more calories and keep your bones and joints healthy. If you have not trained with weights before, please train under the supervision of qualified personal trainer.

2. De-Stress: Stress is one of the main culprits of ill health in the western world. With all the talk of recessions and lack of job security, it's no wonder that we are now more stressed than ever. Stress has been linked with numerous illnesses such as heart disease, insomnia, migraines, stomach ulcers and depression. Stress can be managed in many ways. Some people find exercise a good relief from stress. Others may find yoga, meditation or just taking some time out helping them to de-stress. There are also certain herbal remedies that can help in the short term Passiflora and Avena Sativa are two such herbs that can be taken twice a day for up to a month.

3. Diet: Eating the correct foods in the correct quantities is paramount in your pursuit of a healthy start. Lets first look at the foods to cut out or at least cut down on. Red meat, fried foods, junk food, ready meals, take-aways and processed foods are going to hold you back from your health goals. Junk foods, ready meals and take-aways are generally always high in salt and saturated fat. Red meat and fried foods are related to heart disease and high cholesterol levels.

You should also aim to stay away from hydrogenated fats. These are present in deep fried foods, margarines, biscuits and cakes. These fats are dangerous as they increase your risk of heart disease. Cutting down on coffee and alcohol can make a huge impact on your energy levels. Excessive alcohol consumption is related to a host of health conditions such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure and weight related conditions.

Foods that can give you energy and help your circulation include fruit and vegetables, whole grains and goods oils such as olive oil, flax seed, fish oils and coconut oil. Incorporating more vegetables and lentils in your diet will also help you to lose some extra weight and benefit your immune system.

Red meat and fats from fried and junk food also produce free radicals in our body. These free radicals have been linked with causing a number of diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Cutting down on fizzy drinks is also a must in your new health plan. These drinks are full of sugar and regular intake can be harmful to general health. The sugar free versions of these drinks are actually more harmful, as the artificial sweeteners have been linked with a host of illnesses such as osteoporosis and digestive problems. Water has many health benefits. You should aim for 8 glasses a day (1-1.5 liters). It is important to remember that water is also present in fruit juices, salads and certain fruits.

4. Health Supplements. You can easily include some health supplements as part of your daily routine to improve your immunity and general health. The number one supplement that I would recommend is a good quality probiotic. This will provide you with essential good bacteria, which is required for a healthy digestive system. Probiotics also help to support and boost the immune system. You can take the probiotics through the winter months to aide digestion as well as help fight the winter bugs. Essential fatty acids from either fish oils or flax seed oil is another food supplement that will help your general health. These essential oils are required for a healthy cardiovascular system, brain function and they are excellent at decreasing inflammation in the body. These fatty acids also help to maintain healthy joints. Antioxidants are required to "mop up" the free radicals that we are exposed to from diet, our environment and the pollution. Antioxidants come in many different forms. Examples are Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, Acai Berry, Beta-Carotene, Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Co-enzyme Q10. This is by no means a complete list. Antioxidants are also available in certain foods such as berries and colored fruits and vegetables. These supplements should be taken in combination for maximum benefit. You can change the combinations from month to month.

5. Sleep. Good quality sleep is vital for your health. Insufficient sleep is linked to many conditions such as anxiety, panic attacks, depression, headaches and weight gain. Many people who have problems sleeping find it hard to switch off. This can be treated with including some sort of exercise into your daily routine, or finding some "time out" before you go to bed. Yoga and breathing exercises can also help you relax before bed. There are also some good herbal and homeopathic remedies that can be taken to help you get a natural healthy sleep. These remedies do not work in the same way as conventional sleeping tablets. Homeopathic and herbal remedies work in harmony with the body to provide a natural sleep. The following homeopathic remedies are commonly prescribed for insomnia: Coffea, Nux Vomica, Passiflora and Cocculus. Herbal remedies that used to sleep problems are: Valerian, Avena Sativa, Passiflora and Skullcap. Please consult a qualified homeopath, herbalist or specialist homeopathic pharmacy on specific remedies you may require. Other simple measures that will help you to sleep are to leave a gap of at least 2 hours between eating and sleeping and avoiding caffeine in the afternoon.



Source by Rahul M Shah

Acupuncture for Facial Rejuvenation and Healthy Skin

Acupuncture can be used to help reduce signs of aging and to improve the condition of one's skin. Acupuncture and herbal medicines can aid all sorts of skin problems including wrinkling and sagging skin, as well as acne, oily skin, and allergic skin rashes.

Acupuncture can reduce wrinkling and sagging of skin of the face. According to Chinese medicine, wrinkles and sagging can be a result of weak Qi, or low energy, that is a result of overwork, stress, fatigue, and poor digestion. The meridians of energy that flow towards the face that normally provide a lifting influence become deficient in energy.

Wrinkling and sagging result from the weakening of these meridians. The effects of treatment with acupuncture can be comparable with that of a facelift over the course of 12 to 15 treatments. Treatment can tone the muscles of the face, and it can encourage the production of collagen in areas that normally succumb to wrinkling. It can reduce lines on the forehead, reduce crows feet, and reduce smile and frown lines surrounding the mouth. It can minimize double chins by toning the muscles in the area. The beneficial effects of this sort of acupuncture is not merely skin deep. Beneficial effects of cosmetic acupuncture can include increased energy along with a sense of deep relaxation and well being.

Acupuncture is also very effective in addressing problem skin. People with acne often respond very well to treatment with acupuncture. This is especially true when they make appropriate nutritional and lifestyle changes in conjuction with their acupuncture treatments. Acne is usually seen as a sign of what acupuncturists call "damp heat" which can result from a combination of eating too much oily food and spicy food along with too many dairy products. The condition is also exacerbated by stress.

Allergic skin rashes such as hives and eczema also respond well to acupuncture and Oriental medicine. Allergic rashes are usually treated as conditions of "wind." In other words, they are treated as conditions that are due to external triggers in the person's environment. The conditions themselves are like "wind" because they tend to move location and come and go in an unpredictable fashion.

Skin rashes and acne are often treated by using herbs and acupuncture points that help to detoxify the body as well as cleanse the liver. Bitter cleansing herbs are used to cleanse the liver and reduce impurities in the blood. As these impurities leave the body, the quality of one's skin improvements. Dandelion, forsythia, and honeysuckle are herbs that are often used to treat both acne and skin rashes.

As you can see, acupuncture and herbal medicine can be powerful allies on your quest for healthy and youthful skin.



Source by Farah Khan

Impact Of Nutrition On The National Education And Healthy Growth

Nutrition is an unavoidable factor in education and health growth of a nation. A healthy student is a productive student. Good nutrition is increasingly perceived as an investment in human capital that yields returns today as well as in the future, while bad nutrition is a treat to the nation. The global loss of social productivity in 1990 is caused by four overlapping types of malnutrition â?? stunting and disorders related to iodine iron and vitamin A deficiency â?? amounted to almost 46 million years of productive disability â?? free life nutrition raises returns on investment in education and health care.

A body of literature observed that there is a heavy decline in knowledge in Nigeria from 1980s unlike the past years. Some attributed this decline to the malnutrition during the past civil war. A researcher noted that in the 1980s Nigeria had the lowest number of indigenous engineers of any Third World country. The teaching of English, which is the language of instruction beyond primary school, had reached such poor levels that university faculty complained their inability to understand the written work of their students due to ineffective communication there is a lot of quack graduates and workers in the country. By 1990 the crisis in education was such that it was predicted that in few decade to come, there would be insufficient personnel to run essential services of the country. This calls for a serious attention before the nation losses all her skilled labour force. I have categories these problems into two major nutritional factors, the problem of undernutrition and malnutrition. The purpose of this write â?? up is to review the impact of nutrition on the present and past and necessary steps taken to arrest the situation. It will also provide some relevant solutions to the problem.

NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS:

Nigeria as a country is characterized by two major nutritional problems which includes undernutrition and micronutrient. The rest have little impact and may be reserved for now.

Undernutrition is characterized by inadequate intake of macronutrients. It often starts in utero and may extend throughout the life cycle. It also spans generations. Undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence, and has a cumulative negative impact on the birthweight of future babies. A baby who has suffered intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) as a fetus is effectively born malnourished, and has a much higher risk of dying in infancy. The consequences of being born malnourished extend into adulthood. During infancy and early childhood, frequent or prolong infections and inadequate intakes of nutrients (particularly energy, iron, protein, vitamin A, and Zinc) may add to the contribution of IUGR to preschool underweight and stunting. In Nigerian situation, infants after period of exclusive breast feeding are followed up with weaning which consist of pap, akamu, ogi, or koko and is made from maize (Zee Mays), millet (pennisetum americanum), or guinea corn (sorghum spp.). People from low income groups seldom feed meat, eggs, or fish to their infants, because of socio-economic factors, taboos, and ignorance.

In Anambra State, Nigeria, Agu observed that pap contained only 0.5% protein and less than 1% fat, as compared with 9% protein and 4% fat in the original corn. This is usually due to poor processing. Akinele and Omotola investigated the energy and protein intake of infants and children of the low income group. They reported that about one-third to one-half of the infants suffered varying degrees of malnutrition and 10% were wasted and stunted. A more recent Nigerian National Survey conducted by the Demographic and health Survey (DHS) in 1990 placed the proportion of underweight children under five years of age (those below â??2SD weight-for-age ) at 36% including 12% severely underweight. (below -3 SD). The prevalence of stunting (below â??2 SD height â?? for â?? age) was 43% including 22% severe stunting (below â?? 3SD) while the levels of wasting and severe wasting were 9% and 2% respectively. In 1986 in Ondo State, Nigeria, DHS Survey of children aged 6 to 36 months is 28% prevalence for underweight, 32% for stunting, and 7% for wasting.

For adults and older children, it is usually possible to achieve an adequate protein â?? energy intake by increasing the daily intake of starchy foods of low nutrient density. For infants and small children, however, the volume of the traditional diets maybe too large to allow the child to ingest all the food necessary to cover his or her energy needs. A baby aged four to six months would need 920g of corn gruel to meet daily needs of energy (740 Kcal) and protein (13g). This is an impossible task, considering the size of an in factâ??s stomach.

President Chief Olusegun Obasanjo rightly observed that almost half of children ages 7-13 in Nigerian are continue underweight. A lot of children and adults go to bed starved and some take one meal a day which mostly consists of carbohydrates.

Micronutrient is another hard nut to break in the area of nutrition. It is the inadequate intake of key vitamins and minerals. It can be observed both among the rural and urban dwellers in Nigeria. The lack of vitamins and minerals result in irreversible impairment to child physical and mental development. Apart from the indirect effects on the mother, micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy have serious implications for the developing fetus. Iodine deficiency disorders may cause foetal brain damage or still birth (mental retardation, delayed motor development) and stunting. Iodine deficiency in during foetal development and infancy has been shown to depress intelligence quotient levels by 10-15 points. Foliate deficiency may result in neural tube or other birth defects and preterm delivery, and both iron deficiency anemic and vitamin A deficiency may have significant implications for the future infantâ??s morbidity and mortality risk, vision, cognitive development reduce their ability to concentrate and fully participate in school and socially interact and develop. It is on record that 40% of children under 5 years of age suffer vitamin A deficiency. It is the major cause of preventable, severe visual impairment and blindness in children. The most vulnerable is a high percentage of pre-schoolchildren and pregnant women who are anemic. These two nutrition problem are enormous in Nigeria situation have a great impact in the economy and social life of the country.

THE EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON NATIONAL EDUCATION:

Nutrition has a dynamic and synergistic relationship with economic growth through the channel of education. Behrman cites three studies suggesting that, by facilitating cognitive achievement, child nutrition and schooling can significantly increase wages. In utero, infant and child nutrition affects later cognitive achievement and learning capacity during school years, ultimately increasing the quality of education gained as a child, adolescent and adult. Parental education affects in utero, infant and child nutrition directly through the quality of care given (Principally maternal) and indirectly through increased household income. Human capital development, primarily through education, has received merited attention as a key to economic development, but early childhood nutrition has yet to obtain the required emphasis as a necessary facilitator of education and human capital development.

A recent research shows that early childhood nutrition plays a key role in cognitive achievement, leaning capacity and ultimately, household welfare. For example, protein – energy malnutrition (PEM) deficiency, as manifested in stunting is linked to lower cognitive development and education achievement; low birth weight is linked to cognitive deficiencies; iodine deficiency in pregnant mothers negatively affects the mental development of their children can cause delayed maturation and diminished intellectual performance; iron deficiency can result in impaired concurrent and future learning capacity. This goes a long way to prove that nutrition have a great impact to national education as Nigeria is fully experiencing this ugly impact now and in time to come.

THE EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON HEALTH GROWTH:

A health nation is a wealthy nation. Nutrition has a great impact on every nationâ??s growth especially as we can see in Nigeria situation. Inadequate consumption of protein and energy as well as deficiencies in key micronutrient such as iodine, vitamin A and iron are also key factors in the morbidity and mortality of children and adults. Mal-nourished children also have lifetime disabilities and weakened immune systems.

Moreover, malnutrition is associated with disease and poor health, which places a further burden on household as well as health care systems. Disease affects a personâ??s development from a very early age. Gastro-enteritis, respiratory infections and malaria are the most prevalent and serious conditions that can affect development in the first three years of life. In factions affect childrenâ??s development by reducing their dietary intake; causing a loss of nutrients; or increasing nutrient demand as a result of fever.

Malnutrition also plays a significant role in morbidity among adults. The link between morbidity from chronic disease and mortality, on the one side, and a high body mass index (BMI), on the other has been recognized and analyzed in developed countries primarily for the purpose of determining life insurance risk. A study on Nigerian men and women has shown mortality rates, among chronically energy â?? deficient people who are mildly, moderately and severely underweight to be 40, 140 and 150 percent greater than rates among non-chronically energy â?? deficient people.

A lack of micronutrients also contributes significantly to the burden of disease. Iron deficiency is associated with malaria, intestinal parasitic infections and chronic infections. Chronic iodine deficiency causes goiter in adults and Children and also affects mental health. Vitamin A deficiency significantly increases the risk of severe illness and death from common childhood infections, particularly diarrhoeal diseases and measles. In areas where vitamin A deficiency exists, children are on average 50 percent more likely to suffer from acute measles. A UN report states that improvement in vitamin A status have been reduction in mortality among children aged one to five.

EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT AND PAST EFFORTS:

There have been series of bold step toward solution finding by government and non-governmental organizations (NGO) to eradicate mal nutrition and its reacted effect both in the present and past, though some proved abortive due to bad government and economic dwindling which characterized the 1980s, to trace this chronologically. In 1983, the U.S. Agency for international Development (USAID) began providing assistance to the Nigerian Federal and State Ministries of Health to develop and implement programs in family planning and child survival. There focus was in three areas, but especially in the government and social services area. It will also be focused on catalyzing the growth and leverage of NGOs working at the community and national levels in health care support and democratization. The USAID committed and $135 million to bilateral assistance programs for the period of 1986 to 1996 as Nigeria undertook an initially successful structural Adjustment program, but later abandon it. Plans to commit $150 million in assistance from 1993 to 2000 were interrupted by strains in US â??Nigeria relations over human right abuses, the failed transition to democracy, and a lack of cooperation from the Nigerian Government on anti â?? narcotics trafficking issues. By the mid â?? 1990â??s these problems resulted in the curtailment of USA ID activities that might benefit the military government.

In 1987, The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), under the principal Researcher Dr. Kenton Dashiell, Launched an ambitions effort in Nigeria to combat widespread malnutrition. They encourage using nutritious economical soybeans in everyday food. They further said that soybeans are about 40% protein â?? rich than any of the common vegetable or animal food source found in Africa. With the addition of maize, rice and other cereals to the soybeans, the resulting protein meets the standards of the United Nations Food and Agricultural organization (FAO). Soybeans also contain about 20% oil which is 85% unsaturated and Cholesterol free. Though that is nice program for alleviation of malnutrition started at period, a lot of socio economic thorns hindered its proper function during this period.

The world health organization (WHO) in 1987 estimated that there were 3 million cases of guinea worm in Nigeria about 2 percent of the world total of 140 million cases making Nigeria the nation with the highest number of guinea worm cases. In affected areas, guinea worm and related complications were estimated to be the major cause of work and school absenteeism.

In August 1987, the federal government launched its primary Health care plan (PHC), which President Ibrahim Babangida announced as the cornerstone of health policy. Intended to affect the entire national population, its main stated objectives included accelerated health care personnel development; improved collection and monitoring of health data; ensured availability of essential drugs in all areas of the country; implementation an expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); improved â??nutritionâ?? throughout the country; promotion of health awareness development of a national family health program; and widespread promotion of oral dehydration therapy for treatment of diarrheal disease in infant and children.

The president Chief Olusegun Obasanjo in 2002 meeting with the president international Union of Nutritional sciences (IUNS) promised to support a better coordination of nutrition activities and programs in Nigeria, he further said that â??the high prevalence of malnutrition is totally unacceptable to this Government and he assured the IUNS president that he would do everything possible to ensure that resources are available to improve household food security greater access to healthcare services and better caring capacity by mothers including supported for breast feeding promotion.

In the 27th September 2005 Nigerian President Chief Olusegun Obasanjo Lunched the Nasarawa State School feeding program at the Laminga primary school. The program is fully funded and administrated by the state of Nasarawa, which makes it a unique model in Africa today. The epoch making event is in fulfillment of one of the promises of combating malnutrition especially among children whom he observed that many at the age of 7 â?? 13 years are underweight. He further promises to reach out about 27 million children during the coming 10 years. The NAFDAC are also helping in arresting the issue of malnutrition through making and adequate evaluation of food and drugs used in the country.

Other international bodies and NGO like the World Bank development fund; the world health organization (WHO); the United Nations agencies (UNICEF, UNFPA and UNDP); The African Development Bank; the Ford and Mc Arthur Foundation etc. All of them have contributed their own quarters to the improvement of the nationâ??s health and nutrition.

CONCLUSION:

The greatest Solution to nutrition can be captured in this slogan, â??Catch them youngâ??â??, Children are most vulnerable to malnutrition in Utero and before they reach three years of age, as growth rates are fastest ad they are most dependent on others for care during this period. However, nutrition intervention, such as school feeding program which has started in Nasarawa State among children of school age are also important for strengthening learning capacity. Training and nutrition education is very important. Nutrition education can easily incorporate into primary health care programs. The African Child survival program have reduced the high prevalence of malnutrition in many part of cause and an outcome of under nutrition economic losses from undernutrition includes, as percentages of total losses from all causes: foregone human productivity, 10 â?? 15% ; foregone GDP, % – 10 %.

The government should also use mass media to create necessary attention when needed. The government should also try to reach out to people in the rural areas who have lesser access to variety of government interventions. Moreover, improved nutrition is a particularly powerful antipoverty intervention because it can be achieved at low cost and it has a life long impact. Investment in nutrition is one of the best options for economic growth and better social life.

REFERENCES:

1. King J, Ashworht A changes in infact feeding practices in Nigeria: an historical review. Occasional Paper No. 9. London : Centre for Human Nutrition, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medical, 1987.

2. Kazimi J, Kazimi HR. infact feeding practices of the Igbo Ecol Food Nutrition 1979; 8: 111 â?? 6.

3. The United Stated Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. food, the year book of Agriculteur 1959.

4. UNICEF, Strategy for improved Nutrition of Children and women in Developing Countries, New york. 1990

5. ACC/SCN, Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation Geneva: ACC / SCN in Collaboration with the International food Policy Research Institute N2000.

6. http ://WWW . UNU. Edu/unupress/food/v191 e/cho 6 . htm

7. http ://WWW. Fao . org / docrep / 033/ x9800e /x9800 e07 . htm.

8. http :// WWW. Online Nigeria. Com/education/ index.asp.

9. Yu xiaodong. Action Neede At the national level, The Chinese experiment SCN News Development In International Nutrition. No. 32, mid – 2006.

10. Armar MA. Maternal energy status lactational capacity and infant growth in rural Ghana: a study of the interaction of cultural and biological Doctoral thesis, University of London, 1989



Source by Nzekwe Justin C.

How Often Should You Milk Your Prostate?

Prostate Milking or Prostate Massage is the process of either massaging or stimulating the prostate gland. There are two reasons for massaging the prostate which can either be for sexual stimulation or medical purposes. Sexual stimulation via the prostate is highly beneficial to men since the level of orgasms is 10-folds higher and the durations are much longer. Medical prostate massage provides urologists samples to detect prostate cancer nodules and expressed prostatic secretions to be further analyzed. For whatever purpose a man wants to milk their prostate, there is a guideline to be followed such as a right procedure and a frequency.

So, how often should you milk your prostate? The frequency of prostate milking should be done less frequently compared to you having sex this is to allow your prostate to rest and recover. Not only that but frequent milking may cause serious harm to your prostate. Beside the point stated for limiting the frequency of prostate milking, it is crucial to massage the prostate gland lightly and carefully to avoid lacerations. Take note that you are rubbing your prostate through your anal wall and any laceration may highly cause an infection than can be very harmful and toxic to the prostate gland, your blood and the whole body. If you’re having a regular satisfactory sex life, milking the prostate isn’t really necessary since the fluids and semen is ejaculated on a regular basis.

If you are interested in the benefits of Prostate Milking, there is a guideline that you must follow and it’s about carefully studying the procedure. Know where to massage and how to properly milk your prostate. It’s imperative that one should be aware of how sensitive the procedure is so you need to make sure that everything is well sanitized.

– Start by washing your hands with soap and water and the anal opening.

– Once this is done, use a disposable glove and lubricate your index finger and anal opening or the sphincter muscle. The purpose of the glove is that you don’t want any foreign contaminants introduced inside your body.

– Carefully insert your index finger and allow the sphincter muscle to relax and accommodate your index finger. Once you feel the prostate, carefully and gently stroke it. If there is pain, stop massaging immediately. There might be something wrong with your prostate. Proceed with caution if none.

– Once you are done, carefully remove your finger and clean up.

There are a lot of advantages to Prostate Milking such as cleansing the prostate gland of fluids. Through decades, milking the prostate has also shown signs of reducing the size of enlarge prostates. This activity also has an intense effect on a man’s orgasm. It also helps drain the semen which reduces the impulse of a person to have sex. This is best for people who took vows of celibacy. People who also suffer from Prostatitis are also recommended for prostate milking.

Medical research has also conducted studies on impotence and it’s relation to prostate milking. According to research, men who undergo it, not only allow them to drain the prostate gland but allows them to reverse their impotence as well. If you are familiar with swelling, then you might also be familiar with the accompanied pain that will just not go away. Where there is swelling there is also a need to ejaculate and the pain in swelling will not give you that opportunity. Here’s where prostate milking comes in. It’s another option and it’s a good one. There is an abundance of benefits to prostate milking as it also lessens your chances of acquiring prostate cancer.



Source by Martin Stonehaven

Trading and Profit and Loss Account

Trading Account

As already discussed, first section of trading and profit and loss account is called trading account. The aim of preparing trading account is to find out gross profit or gross loss while that of second section is to find out net profit or net loss.

Preparation of Trading Account

Trading account is prepared mainly to know the profitability of the goods bought (or manufactured) sold by the businessman. The difference between selling price and cost of goods sold is the,5 earning of the businessman. Thus in order to calculate the gross earning, it is necessary to know:

(a) cost of goods sold.

(b) sales.

Total sales can be ascertained from the sales ledger. The cost of goods sold is, however, calculated. n order to calculate the cost of sales it is necessary to know its meaning. The ‘cost of goods’ includes the purchase price of the goods plus expenses relating to purchase of goods and brining the goods to the place of business. In order to calculate the cost of goods ” we should deduct from the total cost of goods purchased the cost of goods in hand. We can study this phenomenon with the help of following formula:

Opening stock + cost of purchases – closing stock = cost of sales

As already discussed that the purpose of preparing trading account is to calculate the gross profit of the business. It can be described as excess of amount of ‘Sales’ over ‘Cost of Sales’. This definition can be explained in terms of following equation:

Gross Profit = Sales-Cost of goods sold or (Sales + Closing Stock) -(Stock in the beginning + Purchases + Direct Expenses)

The opening stock and purchases along with buying and bringing expenses (direct exp.) are recorded the debit side whereas sales and closing stock is recorded on the credit side. If credit side is Jeater than the debit side the difference is written on the debit side as gross profit which is ultimately recorded on the credit side of profit and loss account. When the debit side exceeds the credit side, the difference is gross loss which is recorded at credit side and ultimately shown on the debit side of profit & loss account.

Usual Items in a Trading Account:

A) Debit Side

1. Opening Stock. It is the stock which remained unsold at the end of previous year. It must have been brought into books with the help of opening entry; so it always appears inside the trial balance. Generally, it is shown as first item at the debit side of trading account. Of course, in the first year of a business there will be no opening stock.

2. Purchases. It is normally second item on the debit side of trading account. ‘Purchases’ mean total purchases i.e. cash plus credit purchases. Any return outwards (purchases return) should be deducted out of purchases to find out the net purchases. Sometimes goods are received before the relevant invoice from the supplier. In such a situation, on the date of preparing final accounts an entry should be passed to debit the purchases account and to credit the suppliers’ account with the cost of goods.

3. Buying Expenses. All expenses relating to purchase of goods are also debited in the trading account. These include-wages, carriage inwards freight, duty, clearing charges, dock charges, excise duty, octroi and import duty etc.

4. Manufacturing Expenses. Such expenses are incurred by businessmen to manufacture or to render the goods in saleable condition viz., motive power, gas fuel, stores, royalties, factory expenses, foreman and supervisor’s salary etc.

Though manufacturing expenses are strictly to be taken in the manufacturing account since we are preparing only trading account, expenses of this type may also be included in the trading account.

(B) Credit Side

1. Sales. Sales mean total sales i.e. cash plus credit sales. If there are any sales returns, these should be deducted from sales. So net sales are credited to trading account. If an asset of the firm has been sold, it should not be included in the sales.

2. Closing Stock. It is the value of stock lying unsold in the godown or shop on the last date of accounting period. Normally closing stock is given outside the trial balance in that case it is shown on the credit side of trading account. But if it is given inside the trial balance, it is not to be shown on the credit side of trading account but appears only in the balance sheet as asset. Closing stock should be valued at cost or market price whichever is less.

Valuation of Closing Stock

The ascertain the value of closing stock it is necessary to make a complete inventory or list of all the items in the god own together with quantities. On the basis of physical observation the stock lists are prepared and the value of total stock is calculated on the basis of unit value. Thus, it is clear that stock-taking entails (i) inventorying, (ii) pricing. Each item is priced at cost, unless the market price is lower. Pricing an inventory at cost is easy if cost remains fixed. But prices remain fluctuating; so the valuation of stock is done on the basis of one of many valuation methods.

The preparation of trading account helps the trade to know the relationship between the costs be incurred and the revenues earned and the level of efficiency with which operations have been conducted. The ratio of gross profit to sales is very significant: it is arrived at :

Gross Profit X 100 / Sales

With the help of G.P. ratio he can ascertain as to how efficiently he is running the business higher the ratio, better will be the efficiency.

Closing Entries pertaining to trading Account

For transferring various accounts relating to goods and buying expenses, following closing entries recorded:

(i) For opening Stock: Debit trading account and credit stock account

(ii) For purchases: Debit trading account and credit purchases account, the amount being the et amount after deducting purchases returns.

(iii) For purchases returns: Debit purchases return account and credit purchases account.

(iv) For returns inwards: Debit sales account and credit sales return account

(v) For direct expenses: Debit trading account and credit direct expenses accounts individually.

(vi) For sales: Debit sales account and credit trading account. We will find that all the accounts as mentioned above will be closed with the exception of trading account

(vii) For closing stock: Debit closing stock account and credit trading account After recording above entries the trading account will be balanced and difference of two sides ascertained. If credit side is more the result is gross profit for which following entry is recorded.

(viii) For gross profit: Debit trading account and credit profit and loss account If the result is gross loss the above entry is reversed.

Profit and Loss Account

The profit and loss account is opened by recording the gross profit (on credit side) or gross loss (debit side).

For earning net profit a businessman has to incur many more expenses in addition to the direct expenses. Those expenses are deducted from profit (or added to gross loss), the resultant figure will be net profit or net loss.

The expenses which are recorded in profit and loss account are ailed ‘indirect expenses’. These be classified as follows:

Selling and distribution expenses.

These comprise of following expenses:

(a) Salesmen’s salary and commission

(b) Commission to agents

(c) Freight & carriage on sales

(d) Sales tax

(e) Bad debts

(f) Advertising

(g) Packing expenses

(h) Export duty

Administrative Expenses.

These include:

(a) Office salaries & wages

(b) Insurance

(c) Legal expenses

(d) Trade expenses

(e) Rates & taxes

(f) Audit fees

(g) Insurance

(h) Rent

(i) Printing and stationery

(j) Postage and telegrams

(k) Bank charges

Financial Expenses

These comprise:

(a) Discount allowed

(b) Interest on Capital

(c) Interest on loan

(d) Discount Charges on bill discounted

Maintenance, depreciations and Provisions etc.

These include following expenses

(a) Repairs

(b) Depreciation on assets

(c) Provision or reserve for doubtful debts

(d) Reserve for discount on debtors.

Along with above indirect expenses the debit side of profit and loss account comprises of various business losses also.

On the credit side of profit and loss account the items recorded are:

(a) Discount received

(b) Commission received

(c) Rent received

(d) Interest received

(e) Income from investments

(f) Profit on sale of assets

(g) Bad debts recovered

(h) Dividend received

(i) Apprenticeship premium etc.



Source by Anil Kumar Gupta

Why Follow – Up and Customer Service is so Important in a MLM business?

MLM though may seem radically different from traditional businesses, is still essentially a business model and what makes an MLM business successful are its ability to attract people to join, purchase and market its products or services in order for the business to grow. But in order to succeed in a big way, its staff must be able to provide a high level of service and assist its members in every way possible. So, for every recurring individual or members that signs up with the MLM program, it is important that the person at the top of the MLM Matrix to treat his / her members like a customer.

In 1997, when I first joined Amway, my up-line associate whom convinced me to join his team was extremely helpful, he would provide any assistance possible whenever members in his down line required any help and this was one of the main reasons why I decided to join his team, knowing that I was in good hands and help was always just a phone call away. So we ask ourselves here, what exactly are the qualities of a successful MLM associate? It is the ability to treat your members or fellow associates like customers patronizing your business and most importantly, the ability to follow up with your down-line, to provide constant guidance and even contact your non-active members in your down-line by showing your concern to them are extremely important to your MLM business!

So what benefits do we get when we start treating our down-line as valued customers?

– Your down-line will have confidence in your leadership.

– Your reputation in the MLM business will grow; this will translate into more sign-ups under

you, meaning more earnings and revenue.

– A win – win situation for both you and your down-line, as they will be better equipped with

adequate, precise knowledge and skills to grow yours and their down-line.

– Chances are your down-line will be more receptive towards your future promotions of even

other MLM programs which means you will have another lucrative source of revenue income!

To cap it off, I would like to provide quotes by these famous individuals on the importance of good customer service.

"Being on par in terms of price and quality only gets you into the game. Service wins the game."

Tony Alessandra

"One customer, well taken care of, could be more valuable than $ 10,000 worth of advertising."

Jim Rohn

"A customer is the most important person on our concessions. . " Mahatma Gandhi



Source by Jonathan Tang

Healthy Foods Can Help You With Your Weight Loss Goals

We have said that eating healthy foods will definitely help you lose weight. And someone may ask what constituents healthy foods? My personal definition of healthy foods is the green vegetable foods and fruits. These I also call the clean foods as they are clean, low in calories and do not have any residues after eating them. Unlike the high calorie foods and its fatty cousins ​​which always leave bad residues of waste in your system, fruits and vegetables do not leave such residues that are why I see fruits and vegetables as healthy foods. On the meaty side, clean foods include foods like chicken, turkey and fish.

These meats are lean on fat and calories compared to raw beef. Lentils, dry beans and peas are also passing as clean foods. When one starts eating from the green vegetable and lean meat foods listed above, they will start losing weight because of the fact that fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods have high concentration of complex carbohydrates and fiber in them which the body can slowly absorb them and then cause our hunger pangs to be satisfied quickly and efficiently.

The case against processed foods is that because their nutritional values ​​are low and the fact that they do not make us feel full easily like the natural foods, they do not make us feel satisfied and this like addiction causes us to want to eat more of it when we know for sure that it is against our weight loss or maintenance goals. I once read a book about natural foods and the author said in that book that bad foods like drugs leave behind their unhealthy residue of waste behind after eating them so that as the residues stay in our system, it causes us to want to eat more to cover up the poisoning effect of that residues. You see, when we are not eating, our stomach gets into the mode for cleaning and when that happens, the poisons are all bubbled up from the tissues of our stomach into the surface.

When that happens we start feeling sick or weak and this I have found out that when it happens will cause people to eat more foods to stop the stomach's cleaning work that stops the poisons from coming up to the surface and with this stopping coming our relief from the weakness that the food residues now turning into poison causes us to feel. Usually, people who undergo long periods of fasting for detoxification purpose experience this effect but even if you are not fast one can still experience a mild form of this experience which even that is not convenient. This explains why people who eat junk food tend to eat more and that as already mentioned above is to stop them from getting sick or weak from the poisons in their stomachs that the stomach is trying to evict at ever chance of not eating for a few hours of time.

Even though manufactures of food argu that there is a need to include preservatives into our foods to preserve them and make them last longer, the side effect of such practice is not good as it has caused many of industrialized world's health to deteriorate as it stands now . Perhaps our biggest nutritional mistake has been turning away from foods in their natural state. We have replaced them with processed foods that have been modified to last longer, be easier to manufacture and distribute, and be more convenient to store and use.

For example, when I go to the grocery store, I see apple juice that has no fiber at all and then when I go to a health food store, I see apple juice with the fiber in them. Unfortunately the apple juice with the fiber in them is expensive and they are not found any where except in health food stores so a great majority of the population does not get access to the healthy apple juice except the one that has been heavily processed and all the fiber taken out from them. The apple juice with the fiber in them are the good ones because they are full of fiber and are able to help aid weight loss and good health. The apple Juice with no fiber is usually full of added sugars and they tend to contain more calories than the regular apple or the apple Juice with the fiber. This is to say that process foods are not good that is why they are usually less expensive than the healthy unprocessed equivalents.

Natural foods are good for our health and can easily aid us in losing weight and staying healthy. It is full of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contains cancer fighting antioxidants that are contained in natural unprocessed foods. These foods help reduce the risk of suffering from diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer and even help us to reduce weight and stay fit and healthy.

The foods that are processed may be added to what I call the bad foods as they are usually not healthy for us and contain lots of salt, sugars, conservative, saturated and trans fats. Most nutritionist will tell you that the outer skin of foods in general are more nutrients than even the part that we think we must eat but unfortunately the outer portions of foods is what is thrown away as unfit for food. Take potato for example, the outer skin is more nutritious than the inner food but yet most people will throw out the outer skin and eat the starch within it. Since processed foods do not have fiber in them and are full of additives and food dyes for color they are not healthy for us and in most cases can make one sick.

The human body needs clean environment to stay healthy and eating foods dosed with foreign chemicals and ingredients will not help us at all but will make people worse off. But as suggested above, eating healthy natural foods with high natural fiber and nutrients are good for us and can help us to lose weight and remain healthy and thin. It will cause you not to be hungry needlessly but will help shield you from the hunger pangs and cause you to stay slim, healthy and enjoy your life fully. Always remember that it is not about taste or quantity of food that matters but it is the quality of the food and the health it Promotes that matters and with no food residues left in our system will also mean that craving for the bad foods will be eliminated or drastically reduced.



Source by Joseph Papabuadoo

Healthy Nutritional Food – The Benefits of Adding Vegetables & Fruits to Your Meal

Studies have shown that people who exercise regularly, watch what they eat and control their food portion are less likely to gain weight or suffer from diabetes, stroke, or high blood pressure than those who do not. That is why it is important to always include healthy nutritional food like vegetables and fruits to your meal.

1. Vegetables and fruits provide fiber and keep your digestive system happy. For your breakfast always include fruits such as apple, grapes, strawberry, banana or cranberry to your cereals.

2. Naturally low in calories, vegetables and fruits help with managing weight. Make greens such as spinach, lettuce, broccoli, green beans part of your everyday meal.

3. Eating plenty of vegetables and fruits may also reduce the risk of high blood pressure, diabetes and some cancers. So, it is always good to reduce a certain amount of meet and cheese on a sandwich and replace it with vegetables or salad.

4. Rich in vitamins & minerals, vegetables and fruits help you feel healthy and energized. Decrease portions of starch foods such as pasta, waffle and pancakes or make your main dish a salad of dark, leafy greens and other colorful vegetables.

5. Vegetables and fruits are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods. Try crunchy vegetables instead of chips with your favorite dip or low-fat salad dressing.

6. Fruits can easily be grabbed as a snack. When hungry, instead of rushing to the first fast-food you see, look at places around you where you can get an apple, grapes or a banana.



Source by Fred Ketch